Education research is generally to improve the speed, ability or capacity of an element. Education is split into two categories; Mathematics and Arts.
Mathematics covers architecture, trading, and engineering. So if you wish to increase the capacity of a building, say you need more granary space, then mathematics is the type of research to do.
The Research ListEdit
Engineering - Engineering increases the amount storage space per good type (Stockpile, Villiage Hall, Granary, Inn and Armoury).
The research ranks are not cumlative, That is the first point in Engineering increases the standard Village Hall from 100 to 120 (20% Increase). The next point increase from 100 again NOT 120, so the second research point will bring the Village Hall to 140 (40% Increase from 100 NOT 120).